Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1577-1640
Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 ?C May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp which produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically-educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, king of Spain, and Charles I, king of England.
Rubens was a prolific artist. His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.
His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not detailed; he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.
His fondness of painting full-figured women gave rise to the terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' for plus-sized women. The term 'Rubensiaans' is also commonly used in Dutch to denote such women. Related Paintings of Peter Paul Rubens :. | Triumph of Church over Fury, Discord, and Hate | The Crowning with Tborns (mk01) | Der Tod des Decius Mus in der Schlacht | St Christopber (mk01) | Pilgrimage Jesus |
Related Artists:Wallerant Vaillant
Wallerant Vaillant, (Lille 30 May 1623 - Amsterdam 28 August 1677), was a painter of the Dutch Golden Age and one of the first artists to use the mezzotint technique, which he probably helped to develop.
Wallerant Vaillant was the oldest of five brothers, who all became successful painters.
Jacques (1625 - 1691) traveled to Italy where he joined the Bentvueghels in Rome with the nickname Leeuwrik, and settled later in Berlin.
Jan (1627 - 1668+) was an engraver considered to be a member of the school of Frankenthal and later became a merchant in Frankfurt.
Bernard (1632 - 1698) accompanied Wallerant on all of his travels, and settled later in Rotterdam, where he became deacon of the Wallonian Church.
Andreas (1655 - 1693), the youngest, became an engraver in Paris, and died in Berlin visiting his brother Jacques.
It is said Wallerant was a student of Erasmus Quellinus II (1607 - 1678) in Antwerp. He moved with his parents in 1643 to Amsterdam. In 1647 he lived in Middelburg, but in 1649 he was back in Amsterdam. In 1658 he traveled with his brother to Frankfurt and Heidelberg. He helped invent the Mezzotint technique (schraapkunst, or zwartekunst) with Prince Rupert of the Rhine when he was his tutor performing experiments in etching techniques. In 1659 he went to Paris with Philibert de Gramont where he stayed five years.
Adolf Friedrich Erdmann Menzel
Belgian Symbolist Painter, 1845-1921
Belgian painter, decorative artist and draughtsman. A gardener's son, he was brought up in a quiet suburb of Brussels, bordering the Parc Royal. He studied under the decorative artist Charles Albert (1821-89) and then, between 1860 and 1867, took a course in decorative design at the Brussels Acad?mie. In 1864 he joined the studio of Jean-Fran?ois Portaels to learn the techniques of modelling, painting from life and history painting. Having won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1870, he travelled to Italy, where he was inspired by the work of Mantegna. His early work treated the working lives of the Belgian poor in a social realist manner influenced by Charles de Groux