Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1577-1640
Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 ?C May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp which produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically-educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, king of Spain, and Charles I, king of England.
Rubens was a prolific artist. His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.
His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not detailed; he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.
His fondness of painting full-figured women gave rise to the terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' for plus-sized women. The term 'Rubensiaans' is also commonly used in Dutch to denote such women. Related Paintings of Peter Paul Rubens :. | The Battle of the Milvian Bridge,from The Life of Constantine (mk01) | Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt (mk080 | Christ and St.John with Angels | Return of the Peasants from the Fields | Portrat der Maria de Medici, Konigin von Frankreich |
Related Artists:Felice Ficherelli
Italian painter , b. 1603, San Gimignano, d. 1660, Firenze
Firenze,Italian painter. His most original works were easel pictures, for private collectors, often of cruel and violent subjects, which he interpreted with a morbid sensuality and ambiguous tenderness. He was brought to Florence when very young by the collector Conte Alberto Bardi (d 1632), who arranged for him to study with Jacopo da Empoli and to copy works by Andrea del Sarto. Ficherelli's clear compositions and luminous drapery, which remain evident throughout his career, reflect this training. In the early 1630s he was attracted by the delicate sfumato effects of Francesco Furini and developed a style close to that of Cecco Bravo; his works of this period include the Sacrifice of Isaac (Florence, priv. col., for illustration see Gregori, 1968, p. 26) and the Martyrdom of St Agatha (priv. col., see Cantelli, fig. 338). There followed in the late 1630s Tarquin and Lucretia, which is known in several versions (e.g. Rome, Accad. N. S Luca), the theatrical Julia Receiving the Bloodstained Garments of Pompey (Genoa, priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., pl. 1.208), an Allegory of Patience (Florence, Bigongiari priv. col., see Gregori, 1974, fig. 23) and Antiochus and Stratonica (Auckland, C.A.G.).Hildegard of Bingen
1098-1179,German composer, abbess and mystic. Her writings include much lyrical and dramatic poetry which has survived with monophonic music. The Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum contains musical settings of 77 poems arranged according to the liturgical calendar. The poetry is laden with imagery and the music, based on a few formulaic melodic patterns, is in some respects highly individual. Her morality play Ordo virtutum contains 82 melodies in a more syllabic style.LAMA, Giulia
Italian painter, Venetian school (1681-1747).