Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1577-1640
Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 ?C May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp which produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically-educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, king of Spain, and Charles I, king of England.
Rubens was a prolific artist. His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.
His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not detailed; he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.
His fondness of painting full-figured women gave rise to the terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' for plus-sized women. The term 'Rubensiaans' is also commonly used in Dutch to denote such women. Related Paintings of Peter Paul Rubens :. | Sieg und Tod des Konsuls Decius Mus in der Schlacht | Perseus and Andromeda | Crocodile and Hippopotamus Hunt | The Marriage of Henri IV of France and Marie de Medicis | The Statue of Ceres |
In Vishnudharmottara Purana, Kubera is described as the embodiment of both Artha ("wealth, prosperity, glory") and Arthashastras, treatises related to it and his iconography mirrors it. Kubera's complexion is described as that of lotus leaves. He rides a man - the state personified, adorned in golden clothes and ornaments, symbolizing his wealth. His left eye is yellow. He wears a armour and necklace upto his large belly. His face should be inclined to the left, sporting a beard and moustache and with two small tusks protruding from the ends of his mouth, representing his powers to punish and bestow favours. His wife Riddhi - representing the journey of life - is seated on his left lap, with her left hand on the back of Kubera and right holding a ratna-patra ("jewel-pot"). He should be four-armed, holding a gada (mace - symbol of dandaniti - administration of justice) and a shakti (power) in his left pair and standards bearing a lion - representing artha and a shibika (a club, the weapon of Kubera). The nidhi treasures Padma and Shankha stand besides him in human forms with their heads emerging from a lotus and a conch respectively. Agni Purana states that Kubera should be installed in temples as seated on a goat with club in his hand. Kubera's image is prescribed to be of gold with multi-coloured attributesOle Peter Hansen Balling