Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1577-1640
Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 ?C May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp which produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically-educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, king of Spain, and Charles I, king of England.
Rubens was a prolific artist. His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.
His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not detailed; he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.
His fondness of painting full-figured women gave rise to the terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' for plus-sized women. The term 'Rubensiaans' is also commonly used in Dutch to denote such women. Related Paintings of Peter Paul Rubens :. | The Adoration of the Magi (mk01) | Christ Risen | Pilgrimage Jesus | Crowning of the Hero | Ulysses and Nausicaa on the Island of the Phaeacians |
Related Artists:John Pettie
British Painter, 1839-1893
He was brought up in Edinburgh and East Lothian, and in 1855 he entered the schools of the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, sponsored by the history painter James Drummond (1816-77). He studied under Robert Scott Lauder, and among his fellow students were WILLIAM QUILLER ORCHARDSON, Thomas Graham (1840-1906), George Paul Chalmers (1833-78), John Burr (1831-93) and John MacWhirter, several of whom later became part of Pettie's circle of Scottish artist friends in London. Pettie first exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1858 with In Trabois House (untraced), a scene from Sir Walter Scott's The Fortunes of Nigel, and he began sending work to the Royal Academy in 1860. From 1858 he provided illustrations for the periodical Good Words, and, encouraged by the reviews received for his early Royal Academy exhibits, such as The Armourers (exh. RA 1860) and What D'Ye Lack' (exh. RA 1861), when Good Words transferred its headquarters, Pettie moved to London in 1862. He shared a studio in Fitzroy Square with Orchardson and Graham from 1863 until his marriage to Elizabeth Ann Bossom on 25 August 1865. He subsequently lived at various addresses, gravitating towards the wealthy artistic colony in St John's Wood, where in 1882, at 2 Fitzjohn's Avenue, he built a neo-Georgian house and studio, The Lothians (destr.). This reflected not only the professional circle in which Pettie moved but also the rapid financial success that he achieved in London. From the mid-1860s his most important patron was John Newton Mappin, founder of the Mappin Art Gallery, Pradilla, Francisco
Spanish painter and museum official. He first studied in Saragossa with the stage designer Mariano Pescador (d 1886), and in 1866 moved to Madrid where he began to work with the stage designers and decorators Ferri and Busato. He entered the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado and also attended the Academia de Acuarelistas. In 1873 Pradilla and his fellow student Casto Plasencia (1846-90) won history painting scholarships to study at the newly founded Academia Espaola de Bellas Artes in Rome. In 1874 he sent from Rome a copy of Raphael's Dispute over the Holy Sacrament, a work Pradilla completed in collaboration with Alejandro Ferrant (b 1844), another Spanish scholarship holder. During Pradilla's second and third years abroad he travelled through France, visiting the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1875, and Italy, where he was particularly impressed by Venice and the works of Veronese, Titian and Jacopo Tintoretto. Pradilla won a major prize in 1878 at the Exposicien Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid; as a result of this success he received the commission for another large picture on a historical theme, the Surrender of Granada (1882; in situ) for the Palacio del Senado (now Pal. de las Cortes) in Madrid. This work shows Pradilla's concern to paint from life in his treatment of the landscape of Granada. He produced other paintings on related subjects, including Mad Queen Joanna Imprisoned at Tordesillas (priv. col., see Pardo Canalis, pl. xviii) and the Sigh of the Moor (Madrid, Rodriguez Bauze priv. col., Pardo Canalis, pl. xvii). Pradilla also painted lively scenes of local life and colour. The years of his stay in Rome, where he was director of the Academia Espa?ola between 1881 and 1883,Jules-elie delaunay
French Neoclassical Painter, 1828-1891